|scientific name Pardosa groenlandica |
Alpine tundra, (Dondale & Redner 1990; Dondale 1999), Aspen forests (Nordstrom & Buckle 2002).
Adult males forage from early May to August, while females from mid May to mid September (Dondale & Redner 1990; Pickavance 2001).
Pardosa groenlandica is included in the Pardosa modica group with 15 other species in Canada (Dondale & Redner 1990). Differentiation between species is based on sexual characters. Medium sized spiders (8.5-9-5mm long), carapace (dorsal portion of the head region or cephalothorax) broad, narrow at eye area, dark brown to dark reddish (darker at eye region) with three to four light brown spots on each side, dorsal mid line light brown, lighter and broader around thoracic groove. Mouthparts: Chelicerae long, hairy and dark brown, endites and labium dusky light brown. Sternum (ventral plate between legs) darker with an atero-median light patch narrowing to the center. Coxae (1st leg segment) light brown, lighter at the base, legs brown, lighter in apical segments and often with longitudinal light brown stains, especially on femora (3rd leg segment) and tibia (5th leg segment). Abdomen dark brown with a dorsal longitudinal anterior light patch; ventrally yellowish brown (especially in females, having the anterior portion light yellow). Males and females similar size and coloration pattern but males darker. Male palp (see additional picture, articulated appendages anterior to 1st pair of legs): Terminal apophysis (ta in image) elongated, curved and pointed apically, embolus (e in image) long and curved, median apophysis (ma in image) small with two projections, anterior projection smaller and rounded, posterior projection longer and beak-like. Female epigynum (see additional picture, located in the anterior ventral side of the abdomen): Longer than wide, broader posteriorly (triangular shape), median septum (ms in image) prominent, narrow in its anterior portion, lateral plates (lp in image) arched on each side with two swellings (1 and 2 in image), posterior swelling broad, cavity sclerites (cs in image) with anterior margin convex, atrium (a in image) longer than wide.
This is a common ground-dwelling species (Hackman 1954; Benell-Aitchison & Dondale 1990), found mostly in open areas (roadsides, fields, bare rocks, etc.) or near water, in beaches (Dondale 1999), bogs, swamps. Proportion of sexes are almost the same in July (Pickavance 2001) in accordance to observed mating events in the same month (Dondale 1999), though early mating can occur because egg sacs are reported from late May to mid September (Dondale & Redner 1990). This species has been reported as biennial (Dondale & Redner 1990; Dondale 1999; Pickavance 2001), immature stages overwinter and reach penultimate moult during the following summer and stay as subadult until next summer (two immature cohorts present at the end of each year, one of subadult individuals and one of early instars), having a life cycle from hatching to maturity of 23 months (Dondale 1999). However, it is suggested that some individuals could be triennial for those late hatching cocoons (Pickavance 2001).
According to the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC 2005a, 2005b) this species is not in any risk category.
Generalist predator, no information available.
Holartic (Artic to Boreal). West coast of Greenland, Newfoundland to Alaska, Coast of Maine to south Alberta. Northern Utah to Central Colorado. Siberia (Dondale & Redner 1990).
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